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About Istanbul

About Istanbul

Istanbul, Turkey’s most populous and economically most important city. The world’s 34th largest economy city is the most populous city in Europe according to the rankings of municipalities.

Istanbul northwest of Turkey, along the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn is built to be surrounded. 
Istanbul is an intercontinental city and its European side is called the European Side or Rumeli Coast and the part in Asia is called the Anatolian Side. The first one was the Istanbul Walls on the western side of Istanbul, which was founded on a peninsula surrounded by the Marmara Sea, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. In the process of development and growth, the city has 39 districts, which have been expanded 4 times with the walls being advanced further westward each time. There are 40 municipalities together with the metropolitan municipality.

Istanbul, one of the oldest cities in the world, served as the capital of the Ottoman Empire between the years 330 – 395 AD, the Roman Empire between 395 and 1204 and 1261-1453, the Latin Empire between 1204 and 1261 and the Ottoman Empire between 1453 and 1922. . In addition, from the year 1517, when the caliphate was transferred to the Ottoman Empire, until 1924, Istanbul became the center of Islam.

Etymology Istanbul has been given different names throughout the ages. These city names are associated with different periods of city history. These names are in the historical order, Byzantion, Augusta Antonina, Nova Roma, Constantinople, Konstantiniyya and today’s Istanbul names.

Byzantion: Byzantion (Greek: ,υiumντιον, Latin: Byzantium) is the first known name of Istanbul. B.C. In 667 the Greek settlers of Dorlu, who came from the Megara city state in Ancient Greece, established a colony on today’s Istanbul and named the new colonial king as Byzantion in honor of Byzas or Byzantas (Greek: İstanbulαer or lıανταden).

Byzantium, the original name of the ancient city of Byzantium in the 1st century AD, the city seized by the Romans, is a state by them Latinized.

Augusta Antonina: Augusta Antonina is the short-term name of Istanbul in the early 3rd century, when the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus put his son Antony (next Roman Emperor Caracalla) in honor of his son.

Nova Roma: In 330 AD, when the city was declared the capital of the Roman Empire by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 330 AD, he named the city Nova Roman (Greek: eα inceμη, Nea Roma), meaning “New Rome” in Latin, and tried to promote it never adopted.

Constantinople: However, the death of Emperor Constantine I, in 337 AD, was translated into Constantinople (Greek: Konνσταντινοstantπολι ş, K adınstantinoúpolis, Latinized: Constantinopolis), which means “the city of Constantine”. Constantinople remained the official name of the city throughout the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. But Constantinople was referred to by the natives of the city as the only Greek Πό city Ama (sadeceλιν, Police).

In 1453, after the conquest of the Ottoman Empire by the Ottoman Sultan Fatih Sultan Mehmed, Constantinople remained the most common name used in the West. October 29, 1923 years after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, even if the name is almost Constantinople during the first 7 years of the Republic has continued to be used by Westerners.

Konstantiniyye: Kostantiniyye (Arabic: القسinن veينية, al-Qusstantan ,iniyah, Ottoman Turkish: قسطنقينيه, Kostantiniyye) is the Arabic form of Constantinople and the city became the most used name in the Islamic world. Unlike Constantinople, which means “the city of Constantine” in Greek, Kostantiniyye means “the place of Constantine” in Arabic.

In 1453, after the conquest, the city was declared the fourth capital of the Ottoman Empire, and Kostantiniyya was used as the official name of the city by the Ottoman state, and until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, this name was often used. For example, the Ottoman state and its courts used the headings such as Salt be-Makam-ı Darü’s-Saltanat-i ​​Kostantiniyyetü’l-Mahrusâtü’l-Mahmiyye Kost to indicate the source of the official documents published in Kostantiniyya.

However, in some periods the Ottoman authorities favored other names for the city. And to identify both the Ottoman government for the city and was mainly used this honorific names are synonyms for diplomatic correspondence and was encouraged: 
Dersaadet (Arabic: در سعادت, “Happiness Gate”) 
DERAL the (Arabic: در عاليه, “Holy Door”) 
Sublime -I Alli (Arabic: باب عالی, “Supreme Gate”) 
Pâyitaht (Persian: “ایتخت, “The Foot of the Throne” or “Capital”) 
Asitane (Persian: لستانه, “Threshold of the State”)

Istanbul: Etymologically, the origin of the name Istanbul (Turkish pronunciation: [isetanbu “], and sometimes among the people [(sçtambuɫ]) in the Middle Ages (Byzantine) Greek, meaning ˈ city [or telaffuz city ad (Greek pronunciation: [ε: The words τuşturν iyleλιν], [is tin ˈpolin], were formed by Turkishization.

The name Istanbul has been in Arabic sources since the 10th century and in Turkish sources since the 11th century. In addition, the name Istanbul, even before the conquest of 1453 in Turkish, especially used for the city among the Turkish people.

In his early period documents in the Ottoman Empire [18] the name Istanbul was mentioned in Ottoman Turkish, (استان, a-sitan or i-stan), and in Arabic i-stan means “land of beauties”. In the last period documents (استانبول, a-stan-bol or i-stan-bul) as passed.

Although Istanbul was not an official name during the Ottoman period, it was frequently used in official documents. In addition, officially the Istanbul military for the central army commander of the Ottoman Army and the highest civilian judge of Istanbul were officially used as the master of Istanbul. This adjective has become a prestigious one and has been used for the non-informal and well-educated people of Istanbul.

October 29, 1923 years after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, even in Constantinople and abroad throughout almost the first seven years of the Republic of Constantinople names continue to be used by Westerners was adapted.

However, the name of the city was officially changed with the Turkish Postal Service Law on March 28, 1930 and was renamed as Istanbul. The name Constantinople (and Constantinople) was completely repealed. In addition, the Turkish authorities demanded the use of the name Istanbul officially as the only name of the city in their own language. After the official and international name of the city, the name of Constantinople was banned in the letters or other correspondence and international areas. For example, in letters sent from abroad to Istanbul, these letters were sent back to “Constantinople” (even if Istanbul was written).

History 
General history
 : Istanbul is a world city located at the intersection of Europe and Asia with 300 thousand settlements, urban history of about 3 thousand, capital dating back to 1600 years. The city has been home to different civilizations and cultures throughout the ages, and has preserved the cosmopolitan and metropolitan structure where people from various religions, languages ​​and races live together and has become a unique mosaic in the historical process. Istanbul is one of the rare settlements in the world, which has managed to stay in power and stay in power throughout long periods of time, and is a world capital from past to present.

The history of Istanbul can be divided into five major periods: the 
prehistoric 
period The 
Byzantine period The period of Constantinople The 
Constantine 
period

Prehistoric times: The history of Istanbul dates back to three hundred thousand years ago. The first traces of human culture were found during the excavations at the Yarımburgaz cave on the Küçükçekmece Lake. It is thought that Neolithic and Chalcolithic people lived around the lake in this period. During the excavations carried out in various periods, near the Dudullu Lower Palaeolithic period, near the middle Palaeolithic tools were found in the Middle Palaeolithic.

Foundation period and Byzantion:During the excavations at the Marmaray tube gateway for the Istanbul subway in 2008, the ruins of the 6500s BC, where the Cilalı Stone Age continued, were found. . In addition, the remains of Phoenicians were found in Kadıköy. The Thracians founded the city of Semistra near the city in the 13th and 11th centuries BC. In the time of King Lygos, an Acropolis was established in Sarayburnu and today’s Topkapı Palace. The Greeks from Megara founded a colony here in 685 BC, and Byzantion was founded in 667 BC when King Byzas reigned. When the Roman Empire was dominated by the city, the name of the city was named Augusta Antonina by his son, Septimius Severus, for a short time. Then, during the reign of Emperor Constantine I, the city was declared the capital of the Roman Empire. In the meantime, the name of the city was changed to Nova Roma and it was converted to Constantinople in 337 with the death of Emperor Constantine I.

Byzantine Empire Period: This period covered between 324 and 1453 years. After the conquest of Constantinople and the capital of the Roman Empire, the city also became the center of the east of Rome. The Roman population increased significantly during this period, including the immigration of Roman nobles. In this period; The city has expanded with a new architectural structure. In addition to a 100,000-person hippodrome (Sultanahmet Square), harbors and water facilities were built.

In the period of Constantinus, the city called Nova Roma; On 11 May 330 the city became Constantinople. Constantine, who founded the Hagia Sophia, the world’s largest cathedral in 360; thus he changed the religion of the Roman Empire to Christianity. The first rupture with the west of the pagan Roman religion began in this period. Although; Although the Byzantine Empire begins with the death of Theodosius I; The Byzantine Empire always regarded itself as a Byzantine Emperor for his respect for the coming of Constantinople of Christianity; Until his fall in 1453, his 10 emperors had become Constantine. The role of Istanbul in this period was highly strategic; There was a door between Europe and Asia. It was a center of trade, culture and diplomacy. In this period, the name of the city was “Poli” (city).

After the collapse of Western Rome in 476; The majority of the Romans in the Western Roman Empire migrated here, and the Byzantine Empire was the capital of Istanbul. After the plague epidemic in 543, which caused the death of half of the population; the city was rebuilt during the reign of Emperor Justinian.

The city which was attacked by Sassanids and Avars in 700s; It was attacked by Bulgarians and Arabs in 800s and by Russians and Bulgarians in 900s.

But; The most devastating one among the attacks was in 1204. By the Crusaders; In the 4th Crusade, the city seized in 1204 was looted; the vast majority of the people fled from the city; it turned into a city in poor and debris. The reason for this is that the Latin people who grew up in Western Rome; There are differences and discrepancies between Catholic Christian understanding and Orthodox Christian faith in Byzantium. After this period, in 1261, from the Palailogos Dynasty; Michael VIII Palaeologus regained the city and ended the Latin era.

After this period, gradually shrinking Byzantine; The Ottoman Empire began to be besieged after 1391; Finally, on May 29, 1453, he was promoted by the Ottoman Empire. The conquest of Istanbul symbolizes the end of the Middle Ages in World history.

Byzantine’s last emperor Constantine was defending Istanbul very well before the conquest. Even the burning of the Gregorian region made the sea voyages difficult. The strength of the cities made it difficult to enter the city by 70-80%. But Fatih Sultan Mehmet opened a new era by succeeding …

The period of the Ottoman Empire: This period covered between 1453 and 1923. 29 May 1453; After the siege of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, which lasted for 53 days; Istanbul was the 3rd and last capital of the Ottoman Empire.

After the Ottoman conquest; After the establishment of Topkapi Palace and Grand Bazaar, many schools and baths were opened. In the city where people from all over the world and the empire were carried, a cosmopolitan society with Jews, Christians and Muslims lived together. The old buildings and fortifications of the Byzantine period were restored. [33] 50 years after the conquest; Also known as the “Little Apocalypse” in Istanbul, which has become one of the largest cities in the world; 14 September 1509 After the Istanbul Earthquake (it is claimed to be 8); Thousands of buildings collapsed with 45-day aftershocks and many people lost their lives.

In 1510; Sultan II. Bayezid; He re-established the city with the work of 80,000 people. The vast majority of the existing works remained from this period. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, where Sinan built mosques and other buildings; importance was given to architecture and art. During the Tulip Period; Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha from 1718 onwards; He founded the fire brigade, opened the first printing house and established factories. After the Tanzimat Edict, which was proclaimed on November 3, 1839, there were many innovations in the period when the process of westernization accelerated.

Bridge over the Golden Horn; Istanbul, which became a modern city with the establishment of tunnels, railways, maritime transport in the city, municipal organizations and hospitals in Karaköy, once again suffered great damage together with the earthquake in 1894. At the end of World War I, on November 13, 1918, was occupied by the Entente states’ navy. Istanbul’s capital of 2500 years ended on 29 October 1923.

Ottoman and Byzantine records, 1402’de Yildirim Bayezid in the period of the siege to be taken to remove the siege, in accordance with the agreement in accordance with the agreement established in Sirkeci, a Turkish neighborhood in Goknuk and Tarakli 760 households were placed in Istanbul. In other words, it is confirmed by the sources that the first native Turks settled in Istanbul were Greengrocery. The origin of the Turks, especially on the Anatolian side, are the groves.

Republican period: “ If the world was a single country, its capital would be Istanbul.” Napoleon Bonaparte

Between the years 1923-1950, there were physical breakthroughs. The population of 1 million in the early 1900s fell to 690,000 in 1927, reaching 740,000 in 1935 and 900,000 in 1945. In the city, which had migrated from the Balkans in the 1950s, urban slums came to the fore in urbanization. In the 1960s, apartment-building began near the shanty houses. In the 1970s, housing and transportation problems became more important with rapid population growth. In this period, the increase in the number of automobiles and the increase in traffic as a result of the Bosphorus Bridge was effective in the construction and reached an important point in transportation. The metropolitan area of ​​Istanbul reached a radius of 60 kilometers in 1980, while it was 50 kilometers in the center between 1970 and 1975. The population growth of the 1990s resulted in the expansion of the population to the outside and as a result IETT ‘ and the minibuses tried to close this gap. In the 1970s, the Bosphorus Bridge was opened in the city in 1973 with the revival of the zoning activities.

Art:The city, many times the hands changed and worn in the city, the Roman Empire, more than the structure of the remaining structure. The column was formed by stacking 8 pillars and a pedestal on top of each other, each with a weight of 3 tons and a diameter of 3 meters. Another structure remaining from this period to the present is the Bozdoğan Arch. The construction of the city’s water reserve system began during the reign of Emperor Hadrian. During the reign of Constantinople during the reign of Constantinople and the growth of the city, it was necessary to expand the system to meet the needs of the rapidly growing population. Kemer, the water between Kağıthane and the Sea of ​​Marmara between the hills of the hills and Thrace ‘ from the hilly areas of the city to the city’s wide water supply system meets the water needs and channels took place at the last point. At that time, the water was stored in more than a hundred underground cisterns, such as the three open and overcrowded Cistern basins with a total capacity of more than 1 million cubic meters. Hipodrum Square, known as Sultanahmet Square today, was built by Circus Maximus.

Eastern Roman Empire: Maiden’s Tower is the only artifact from the Byzantine Empire Period in Uskudar.

The eastern Roman Empire ruled for a thousand years in the city and used it as its capital. Due to this feature, there are many Eastern Roman buildings in Istanbul. The most important of these were gathered in Eminönü. The most important of these buildings is the Hagia Sophia Museum, which was opened as a church. The Hagia Sophia is a basilica patriarchal cathedral built by the Roman Emperor Justinian I between 532 and 537 AD. It was converted into a mosque by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1453 when it was conquered by the Turks and served as a museum.

One of the important buildings after Hagia Sophia was Fethiye Mosque. As a church, it was built by Mihail Glabas Tarkaniotes, one of the most prominent figures of Eastern Rome at the end of the 13th century. It was used as a patriarchate in 1454 after the conquest of Istanbul. In 1590 it was converted into a mosque as a memory of the conquest with the conquest of Georgia and Azerbaijan in the Iranian wars. The Chora Church, one of the most important buildings, was built in 534 by Saint Theodius during the reign of the Roman Emperor Justinian. In the 11th century, it was rebuilt by the mother-in-law Maria Doukaina of Alexios I. The monastery, which had been devastated during the Latin Empire period of 1204-1261, was restored by Theodoros Metokhites in the 14th century. External narthex and parekklesion were added to the structure during this period.

Ottoman Empire:Art in the Ottoman Empire is far ahead in architecture. Numerous works have been made during the imperial period. The buildings are simple and useful as well as dignified and majestic. The magnificent palace type came from the West in the 19th century. However, the mosques in the name of Allah and Tekkeler is completely abidevî. The mosques are built with a lot of social facilities and constitute a “complex”. The Ottomans are brilliant developers. It protects structures with care even if it does not belong to its own civilization. One of the most beautiful examples of this is the Church of Hagia Irene. There is no corner of the empire where there is no reconstruction. Even some modest neighborhood riches can make a mosque or make a fountain or repair a school. The understanding of society is remarkably strong. Architect Sinan ‘ One of the greatest architects in world history is perhaps an alliance when it is the first. Sinan lived for a century and spent the last half-century as his chief architect. 81 mosques, 50 mosques, 55 madrasas, 19 mausoleums, 14 public houses, 3 hospitals, 7 districts (dams), 8 bridges, 16 caravanserais, 33 palaces, 32 baths, 6 cellars, 7 d’arulkurrâ. This 441 works are scattered throughout the empire. In 1839, proclamation of the Tanzimat Edict took important steps towards Europeanization. The Ottoman Empire adopted the European style towards the end of the 18th century and reflected this to architecture and art. The baroque style, which has become widespread in Europe, has been suitable for the production of many works in Istanbul. Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy Mosque, which are built in Baroque and Rococo style, constitute an important place for this kind in the world. Sinan lived for a century and spent the last half-century as his chief architect. 81 mosques, 50 mosques, 55 madrasas, 19 mausoleums, 14 public houses, 3 hospitals, 7 districts (dams), 8 bridges, 16 caravanserais, 33 palaces, 32 baths, 6 cellars, 7 d’arulkurrâ. This 441 works are scattered throughout the empire. In 1839, proclamation of the Tanzimat Edict took important steps towards Europeanization. The Ottoman Empire adopted the European style towards the end of the 18th century and reflected this to architecture and art. The baroque style, which has become widespread in Europe, has been suitable for the production of many works in Istanbul. Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy Mosque, which are built in Baroque and Rococo style, constitute an important place for this kind in the world. Sinan lived for a century and spent the last half-century as his chief architect. 81 mosques, 50 mosques, 55 madrasas, 19 mausoleums, 14 public houses, 3 hospitals, 7 districts (dam), 8 bridges, 16 caravanserais, 33 palaces, 32 baths, 6 cellares, 7 d’arulkurrâ. This 441 works are scattered throughout the empire. In 1839, proclamation of the Tanzimat Edict took important steps towards Europeanization. The Ottoman Empire adopted the European style towards the end of the 18th century and reflected this to architecture and art. The baroque style, which has become widespread in Europe, has been suitable for the production of many works in Istanbul. Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy Mosque, which are built in Baroque and Rococo style, constitute an important place for this kind in the world. 7 water (dam), 8 bridges, 16 caravanserais, 33 palaces, 32 baths, 6 cellars, 7 d’arulkurrâ. This 441 works are scattered throughout the empire. In 1839, proclamation of the Tanzimat Edict took important steps towards Europeanization. The Ottoman Empire adopted the European style towards the end of the 18th century and reflected this to architecture and art. The baroque style, which has become widespread in Europe, has been suitable for the production of many works in Istanbul. Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy Mosque, which are built in Baroque and Rococo style, constitute an important place for this kind in the world. 7 water (dam), 8 bridges, 16 caravanserais, 33 palaces, 32 baths, 6 cellars, 7 d’arulkurrâ. This 441 works are scattered throughout the empire. In 1839, proclamation of the Tanzimat Edict took important steps towards Europeanization. The Ottoman Empire adopted the European style towards the end of the 18th century and reflected this to architecture and art. The baroque style, which has become widespread in Europe, has been suitable for the production of many works in Istanbul. Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy Mosque, which are built in Baroque and Rococo style, constitute an important place for this kind in the world. Towards the end of the 18th century, he adopted the European style and reflected this to architecture and art. The baroque style, which has become widespread in Europe, has been suitable for the production of many works in Istanbul. Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy Mosque, which are built in Baroque and Rococo style, constitute an important place for this kind in the world. Towards the end of the 18th century, he adopted the European style and reflected this to architecture and art. The baroque style, which has become widespread in Europe, has been suitable for the production of many works in Istanbul. Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy Mosque, which are built in Baroque and Rococo style, constitute an important place for this kind in the world.

Geography: Istanbul is located at 41 ° K, 29 ° D coordinates. It consists of the Çatalca Peninsula in the west and the Kocaeli Peninsula in the east. The Black Sea in the north, the Marmara Sea in the south and the Bosphorus in the middle, the Saray attached to Tekirdağ in the northwest, Çerkezköy in the west, Tekirdağ, Çorlu, Tekirdağ in the west, Marmara Ereğlisi in the southwest, Tekirdağ in the south, Kandira in the northeast, It is adjacent to Kocaeli, in the east and to Gebze districts in the southeast. Çatalca is one of the peninsulas in Istanbul and Kocaeli is located on the Asian mainland. The Bosphorus in the middle of the city combines these two continents. Fatih Sultan Mehmet and Bosphorus Bridges on the Bosphorus connect the two sides of the city. Istanbul Bosphorus and the Golden Horn along the way to surround Turkey ‘

Geology: The North Anatolian Fault Line, which is located close to Istanbul, extends from North Anatolia to the Sea of ​​Marmara. Two tectonic plates, Eurasia and Africa, push each other and cause the fault to move. Due to this fault line, very severe earthquakes occurred in the region during the history. The Big Istanbul Earthquake that took place in 1509 is the biggest example of this. This earthquake caused the demolition of 100 mosques in Istanbul and the death of 10 thousand people. In the earthquake of 1766, Topkapi Palace, Hagia Sophia, Eyup Sultan Mosque and the Grand Bazaar were damaged. In the 1999 Gölcük Earthquake, 18 thousand people died and many people became homeless. The seismologists state that they may be in an earthquake of 7 before 2025.

Climate: The climate of Istanbul is a climate with a transition between the Black Sea climate and the Mediterranean climate, so Istanbul’s climate is mild.

The summers of Istanbul are hot and humid; winters are cold, rainy and sometimes snowy. Because of the humidity, the air is warmer than it is warm; cooler than cold. The average temperature in winter is around 2 ° C to 9 ° C, and rain and snowfall are usually observed. Snow falls. In the winter it can snow for a fortnight. The average temperature in summer is around 18 ° C to 28 ° C, and generally rain and flood are observed.

The warmest months are July and August and the average temperature is 23 ° C, the coldest months are January and February and the average temperature is 5 ° C. The average temperature of the year in Istanbul is 13.7 degrees.

Total annual precipitation is 843.9 mm and is seen all year round. 38% of rainfall is in winter, 18% in spring, 13% in summer and 31% in autumn season. Summer is the dryest season, but unlike the Mediterranean climate there is no dry season. Istanbul suffered from dehydration until 1994, but there was no water shortage.

The highest air temperature so far; On July 12, 2000 it was recorded as 40.5 ° C. The lowest air temperature; It was recorded as -16.1 ° C on 9 February 1929.

Natural life:The plant, which has a very rich plant population, grows about 2500 plant species such as boxwood, oak, sycamore, beech, hornbeam, maple, chestnut, pine, spruce and cypress. Some of these plants are endemic to this region. The trees, which usually form forests, are the beech, chestnut and stalked oak in the north of Istanbul, north of Alemdag and around Polenezköy. Besides the effect of climate on the vegetation, it has soil effect. The areas where the beech tree community is covered by lime brown forest soils, in the oak and chestnut community these limes are lime-free. With about 2500 natural plant species, Istanbul can leave behind European countries such as England alone. This also naturally grown more than ten thousand plant in Turkey approximately 1/4 of it means housing in Istanbul; and some of these plants are endemic, meaning they live only in Istanbul.

Istanbul, which is rich in animal life, can be found in rare animals such as deer, wild boar, wildcat, wolf, jackal, lynx, bear and fox. However, in Istanbul, which is located on an important bird migration route, it is possible to observe various bird species such as storks, eagles, hawks and hawks in every spring and autumn. The most common birds in Istanbul are sparrows, pigeons, doves, crows and seagulls, which have become a symbol of the city.

City Panari: Istanbul has 39 districts. 25 of these districts are located on the European side and 14 on the Asian side. The districts of Istanbul are divided into three main regions: 
Fatih and Eminönü, the historical peninsula of Old Istanbul (the district of Eminönü was connected to the district of Fatih with a law in 2008. Today, the peninsula constitutes the district of Fatih). Haliç is located on the northern shores of this region. It extends to the Western Walls in the West. The southern border forms the Sea of ​​Marmara Sea. In the east there is the entrance of the Bosphorus.

Beyoğlu and Beşiktaş districts in the north of the Golden Horn are of great importance in terms of history. The palace of the last Ottoman sultans is located in Dolmabahçe Palace Kabataş. Old districts such as Ortaköy and Bebek follow each other along the shores of the Bosphorus. On the two sides of the city there are luxury flats along the Bosphorus.

Uskudar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kadikoy (ancient Chalcedon) districts in ancient times as a city changed over time and became the district of Istanbul. It is the oldest districts of Istanbul on the Asian side. Nowadays, it has great importance in terms of many modern residential areas and business areas. It hosts one third of the city’s population.

As it goes west and north from the historical districts of Istanbul, there is a great differentiation. The highest skyscrapers and office buildings are on the European side, especially in Levent, Mecidiyeköy and Maslak. The rapid growth of the city in the 20th century led to the beginning of a great migration from east to west. Thus, the squattering in the city has gained a great speed. These buildings, which are made as treasure or private land as a leak, are made in a short time and in low quality. Ankara between Turkey’s largest city, and it is widely held in Izmir. Squatters are largely caused by distorted urbanization.

Urbanization: The city structure and shape of Istanbul is constantly changing. During the Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods, significant regeneration and growth took place in the historical peninsula of Constantinople, in Galata (Pera. In ancient times all the districts of Istanbul were independent cities. Today Istanbul can be regarded as the metropolis of the old Constantinople. Because the city has been expanded and renewed ever since.

Very high buildings built in recent years have been constructed considering the rapid growth of the population. Due to the rapid expansion of the city, housing is generally moving out of the city. The highest multi-storey offices and residences in the city are located in the Levent, Mecidiyeköy and Maslak districts on the European side. Numerous shopping centers were gathered in Levent and Etiler. An important part of Turkey’s largest companies and banks are located in this region.

  1. The second half of the century, especially on the Anatolian side of the sea near the construction of summer houses and luxury pavilions has been accelerated. Bağdat Street in Kadıköy district has many shopping centers and restaurants with its width and length. This has contributed positively to the development of the region. The biggest factor in population growth in recent years is the migration from Anatolia. Today, 66% of the people of Istanbul live on the European side.

Management: Kadir Topbas, the mayor of Istanbul, is currently working. The governor of the city is Hüseyin Avni Mutlu.

Istanbul is governed by presidents who deal with the party system. This form of management has been continuing since April 3, 1930, when the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality was established. The municipality holds all decision-making powers of the city. The management of the city was collected in 3 main organs. 1. Mayor (elected every 5 years) 2. Metropolitan Council, 3. Metropolitan Board of Directors.

Today’s Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Building is located in the district of Fatih district known as Sarachane. The building was completed on December 17, 1953 and started to serve as a municipal building on May 26, 1960.

Population Turkey Statistics Institute (TSI) in 2010 which was prepared by the Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) of Istanbul, according to the results of Census Total Population 13,255,685 persons. Among the total population, 13.120.596 (98.98%) urban population and 135.089 (1.02%) rural population.

Istanbul has 39 districts, 14 of which are on the Anatolian side and 25 on the European side. According to the data of 2010 in terms of 39 districts of Istanbul, the district with the highest population was Bağcılar, and the district with the least population was Adalar.

District Population 
Islands 14.221 
Arnavutköy 188.011 
Atasehir 375.208 
Avcilar 364.682 
Bagcilar 738.809 
Bahcelievler 590.063 
Bakirkoy 219.145 
Basaksehir 248.467 
Bayrampasa 269.481 
Besiktas 184.390 
Beykoz 246.136 
Beylikduzu 204.873 
Beyoglu 248.084 
Buyukcekmece 182.017 
Catalca 62.001 
Cekmekoy 168.438 
Esenler 461.072 
Esenyurt 446.777 
Eyup 338.329 
Fatih 431.147 
Gaziosmanpasa 474.259 
Gungoren 309.624 
Kadıköy 532.835 
Kağıthane 416.515 
Kartal 432.199 
Kucukcekmece 695.988 
Maltepe 438.257
Pendik 585.196 
Sancaktepe 256.442 
Sariyer 280.802 
Silivri 138.797 
Sultanbeyli 291.063 
Sultangazi 468.274 
Sile 28.119 
Sisli 317.337 
Tuzla 185.819 
Umraniye 603.431 
Uskudar 526.947 
Zeytinburnu 292.430

Approximately 64.66% (8.571.374) of European residents were living in Istanbul; 35,33% (4,684,311) lives on the Anatolian side. Istanbul’s population has doubled in the last 20 years. Due to unemployment, many people have migrated to Istanbul, and have often created slums around the city.

Population Pyramid According to the Address Based Population Registration System, the distribution of Istanbul population according to age groups by 2010; 
5 – 9 1.030.132 101614 
1.070.785 15119 1.031.866 
205924 
1.088.541 
25-29 1.347.798 
30-34 1.331.359 
356639 
1.160.501 
408544 904.716 453249 878.484 
508454 672.290 
55 3759 546.270 
60-64 393.316 
65-69 263.486 
70-74 188.716 
75-79 144.579 
80-84 89.761 
85 
5489 37.398 90+ 11.484

Historical population: The population of Istanbul is an estimated 
number of 
years (1927-2010 counts before 1927) as follows: Number of population in Istanbul in the past Year Population Annual increase rate (%) 
330 40,000 – 
400 400,000 3,34 
530 550,000 0, 25 
545 350,000 -2,97 
715 300,000 -0,09 
950 400.000 0,12 
1200 150,000 -0,39 
1453 36,000 -0,56

Year Population Annual increase rate (%) 
1477 14,803 -3,64 
1566 600,000 4,25 
1817 500,000 -0,07 
1860 715,000 0,84 
1885 873,570 0,80 
1890 874,000 0,01 
1897 1,059,000 2,78 
1901 942,900 – 2.86

Year Population Annual increase rate (%) 
1914 909,978 -0,27 
1927 680,857 -2,21 
1935 741,148 1,07 
1940 793,949 1,39 
1945 860,558 1,62 
1950 983,041 2,70 
1955 1,268,771 5,24 
1960 1,466. 535 2,94

Year Population Annual increase rate (%) 
1965 1.742.978 3.51 
1970 2.132.407 4,12 
1975 2.547.364 3.62 
1980 2.772.708 1.71 
1985 5.475.982 14.58 
1990 6.629.431 3.90 
2000 8,803,468 2,88 
2010 13,120,596 4,90

Religion: Most of the metropolitan cities of the world are shaped by many people. The greatest religion in the city is Islam. The religious minorities are the Greek Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews. According to the 2000 census; There are 2,691 active mosques, 123 active churches and 26 active synagogues. There are also 109 Muslim cemeteries and 57 non-Muslim cemeteries. Before their number had diminished, there were religious minorities in certain districts. For example, there was an Armenian population in Kumkapı, a Jewish population in Balat and a Greek population in Fener. I. Bartholomew, the spiritual leader of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, is in the Fener district of Fatih. This patriarchate is the center of the Orthodox sect which forms an important part of Christianity.
A view from the inner courtyard of the Blue Mosque, one of the most important mosques in Istanbul.

Muslims: Muslims constitute the largest religious group in the city. Along with these, the most popular sectarian form of Muslims is the Sunnis. According to the number in 2007, the total number of mosques in the city is 2,994. Istanbul became the last center of the Islamic Caliphate. The caliphate which began with Yavuz Sultan Selim in 1517, ended with Abdulmecit on March 3, 1924. On September 2, 1925, the monopolies were closed and the cult was banned. Thus, the secular system in the country has started and the province most affected by this change has been Istanbul. Immediately after the abolition of the caliphate, the Presidency of Religious Affairs was established. Shaykh al-Islamis, who had the highest authority during the Ottoman Empire, was replaced by the President of Religious Affairs.

Christians:The city has been the center of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate since the 4th century and continues to serve as a center for other Orthodox churches. The city is also the center of the Turkish Orthodox Patriarchate and the Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul. In the old years, while the Bulgarian Psychosocial was at the forefront, it was replaced by the Orthodox Churches. especially Greeks and Armenians living in Istanbul, the Turks have lived with conflict from time to time during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire has been achieved, but re-order the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. In the years between 1914 and 1927, the Christian population in the city fell rapidly from 450,000 to 240,000 due to wars. made in 1923 the population living in the Turkey-Greece Greek Orthodox community in Istanbul Mübadelesi exempted. But in the years of World War II a number of taxes were introduced for this minority. The events of 6-7 September, the destruction and looting movement of the Greek minorities in 1955, caused the death of 11 Greeks and wounded 30 to 300 people. As a result of this incident, the rapid migration from Istanbul to Greece has increased and 12,000 Greek citizens have been deprived of their citizenship.

With the conquest of Istanbul, many churches have been converted into mosques. The biggest of these mosques and the most important is the Hagia Sophia in Fatih’s Eminönü district. Hagia Sophia was closed to worship at the request of Atatürk and started to serve as a museum on 24 November 1934 with the approval of the Council of Ministers. In addition, Fenari Isa Mosque, Arab Mosque, Kocamustafapaşa Sümbül Efendi Mosque. 
Interior view of the Neve Shalom Synagogue with the most important location in Istanbul.

Jews: Sephardic Jews have been living in this city for over 500 years. The present population of the Jews in Istanbul is around 22,000. Ashkenazi Jews are relatively new and much smaller than the Sephardic Jews. The places of worship of the Jews are sinangdots. The number of active synagogues in the city is 20. Neve Shalom Synagogue is located in Karaköy district of Beyoğlu district. The synagogue opened to worship in 1951 has the largest congregation. The language of the Sephardic Jews, the Ladino language (Jewish Spanish), is spoken by people over the age of 65, and is no longer spoken even by Jews under the age of 65. Therefore, Ladino is in danger of serious extinction.

EconomyIstanbul, Turkey’s largest city and former capital, politically. Due to a crossroads of land and sea trade routes and strategic location it has been the center of economic life in Turkey. The city is also the largest industrial center. It meets 20% of industrial employment in Turkey. It has an industrial area of ​​approximately 38%. Istanbul and surrounding cities in this area; products such as fruit, olive oil, silk, cotton and tobacco. In addition, food industry, textile production, petroleum products, rubber, metal goods, leather, chemical, pharmaceutical, electronic, glass, technological products, machinery, automotive, transportation vehicles, paper and paper products and alcoholic beverages are among the important industrial products of the city. . Forbes Magazine ‘ According to his research, the city which has 35 billionaires as of March 2008 has been the fourth in the world. The Dersaadet Tahvilat Exchange, which first opened in Istanbul in 1866, changed the existing structure in early 1986 and opened today’s Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). Bankalar Caddesi, located in Galata district in the early 19th and early 20th centuries, became the financial center for the Ottoman Empire. In this region, there was the Ottoman Bank, the Ottoman Bank, the Ottoman Bank (Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane) and the Ottoman Stock Exchange (1856). Bankalar Caddesi maintained being a center of finance and economy until 1990, but as a result of the modernization movement, modern business centers were Levent and Maslak regions. In 1995, the ISE, Sarıyer ‘

Today, Istanbul, Turkey 55% of production and trade volume has 45%. 21.2% of the gross national product in the country. In 2005, it reached $ 133 billion in gross domestic product. According to 2005 data, the export figure of Istanbul based firms was 941,397,000,000 dollars. Imports were made at USD 9,883,000,000.

Tourism is
one of the favorite tourism centers due to its history, monuments and artifacts, and the Bosphorus. According to the statistics of Istanbul Municipality in 2000, two million tourists came to the city. The largest share among the tourists belongs to the Germans with 208,000 people. American, British, French and Russian follow the Germans. In 2006, 5 million 346 thousand tourists came to the city. This number is more than half a million tourists in 2005.

Public services 
Education:There are thirty-one universities in Istanbul, twenty seven of which are state-owned foundations. In particular, state-run educational institutions are among the most respected and well-equipped universities in the country. However, there has been an increase in the number of private universities in recent years. 3 Two of Turkey’s oldest state university in Istanbul. Istanbul University was founded in 1453 and is Turkey’s oldest universities. Istanbul Technical University (1773) is the third oldest technical university in the world and fully dedicated to engineering sciences. Other well-known public universities in Istanbul; Boğaziçi University is Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Yıldız Technical University and Marmara University. In addition, three of the country’s oldest 4 foundation universities are located in this city.

Universities providing education in Istanbul: State: Bogazici University, Galatasaray University, Istanbul University, Istanbul Technical University, Marmara University, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Yildiz Technical University.

Foundation: Acıbadem University, Bahçeşehir University, Beykent University, Doğuş University, Fatih University, Haliç University, Işık University, İstanbul Arel University, İstanbul Aydın University, İstanbul Bilgi University, İstanbul Bilim University, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, İstanbul Kültür University, İstanbul Şehir University , Istanbul Commerce University, Kadir Has University, Koç University, Maltepe University, Okan University, Özyeğin University, Piri Reis University, Sabancı University, Yeditepe University, Yeni Yüzyıl University.

Almost in all private high schools and universities in Istanbul, English, French and German as well as the main foreign language or secondary foreign language training is provided. In its later name, the Galatasaray Mekteb-i Sultanisi is the oldest high school in the city and the second oldest educational institution.

Galatasaray High School: Istanbul High School (1884), better known as the Istanbul Boys’ High School, is one of the oldest internationally recognized high schools.

Cağaloğlu Anatolian High School (formerly Istanbul Girls’ High School) was founded in 1850 at the request of Bezmiâlem Valide Sultan, mother of I. Abdülmecit. It is the first civilian high school of the Ottoman Empire. First Mother received the School and then Darülmaarif names, Inas İdadisi between the years 1911-1933 (male teacher high school), between the years 1933 to 1983 had served as Turkey’s first female high school in Istanbul Girls’ High School, and in 1983 took its present form.

Kuleli Military High School in the Çengelköy district of Üsküdar is the only military high school in the city.

Nişantaşı Anatolian High School: (1905), English High School for Boys, especially the British community was founded to provide a healthy education to the children of the members of the community.

Kadıköy Anatolian High School: (1955), better known as the old and Kadıköy Maarif College, Turkey is one of the oldest and elite high school Cumhurriyet recognized worldwide. In short, Kadıköy is known as Maarif or KAL. Kadıköy Maarif, the first and only educational institution with the National Achievement Award, is also the owner of Ragıp Devres award as the school that sent the most successful students to Istanbul Technical University.

that education is one of the high schools within the Kadıköy Anatolian High School High School group in Turkey, Besiktas Ataturk Anatolian High School, Pertevniyal High School, Stone High School is one of the reputed schools in Turkey and worldwide. Due to the presence of a large number of foreign minorities in Istanbul, there has been an increase in foreign high schools in the 19th century. After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey has entered into several foreign schools Ministry of Education administration. However, some high schools are still under foreign administration. Private Italian High School is run by the Italian government and is considered an Italian public school. In addition, the need for funding and teachers are provided from the Capital of Rome. Founded in 1863, Robert College and many other schools are among them.

Istanbul has a large number of libraries, including large collections of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. The most important libraries in terms of historical collections are the Topkapı Palace Library, the Library of Istanbul Archeology Museums, the Beyazit State Library, the Suleymaniye Library, the Istanbul University Library and the Library of Ataturk.

Health Istanbul is the country’s medical research center with many hospitals, clinics and laboratories. Most of these facilities have high-tech equipment. These opportunities have an impact on medical tourism and the city is advancing very rapidly in this area. Western European countries such as Britain and Germany send their low-income patients to Istanbul for high-tech medical treatment and operations. Istanbul has become a global stop especially for laser ophthalmology (eye surgery) and plastic surgery.

Air pollution in the city is a major problem for health. The increase of private vehicles and slow and insufficient public transportation increase this problem. With regard to this problem, only unleaded gasoline was planned in January 2006.

Infrastructure:The systems for meeting the water needs of the city date back to the founding period of the city. The two most important aqueducts are the Mazul Arch, which was built during the Roman period, and the Arch of the Valens (Valens Arch). The need for water in the foundation periods of the city was provided by underground resources. The first major water facilities were built in the Roman period. Valens from the Roman Emperors brought water from the vicinity of Halkalı to Beyazıt, and built this archway with Mazul Kemer and the Bozdoğan Arch. In addition, during the time of Valens a forest was built in the Belgrad Forest. The waters of Kagithane Creek were collected in grids and used to meet the water needs of the city. Collected waters were collected in various cisterns of the city. The largest and most important of these cisterns are the Binbirdirek Cistern (Philoxenos) and the Basilica Cistern. As a result of the increasing number of population in the city, the water problems started to be withdrawn and Suleiman the Magnificent decided to solve this problem. Thus, the construction of Kırkçeşme Water Facilities started in 1555. In the following years, as a result of the need for water and its people, small fountains were opened to the public.

Today, services such as chlorination of water, waste water treatment, disinfection and dispensing are carried out by ISKI (Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration). It also distributes clean water in some private establishments. The electricity distribution and maintenance in Istanbul, Turkey Electricity Transmission Company It is maintained by. The first electric power plant of the city is the Silahtarağa Power Plant, which was established in 1914 and served until 1983.

The first Ministry of Post and Telegraph in the Ottoman Empire was established on October 23, 1840 as a result of the developments with the Tanzimat Edict. The first post office office, the Post Office, was near the courtyard of Yeni Cami. The first International was established in 1876, and in 1901, the transfer was started to be accepted. In 1847, Samuel Morse patented the telegraph. This new invention by Samuel Morse was tested in the old Beylerbeyi Palace (Beylerbeyi Palace was built in 1861-1865 in the same place) by the Sultan himself. After this successful experiment, the first telegraph line installation between Istanbul and Edirne started on August 9, 1847. In 1855, the Telegraph Administration was established,

Important places: The city ​​walls that surround Istanbul were built from the 7th century onwards, and were overhauled four times with demolitions and rebuilds. Its final construction is from 408 AD. II. During the time of Theodosius (408-450), the walls of Istanbul extended to Ayvansaray along the shore of the Golden Horn from Sarayburnu and to Yedikule along the Marmara coast, from Yedikule to Topkapı, and from Topkapı to Ayvansaray. The length of the walls is 22 km. The walls of the Golden Horn are 5.5 km, black 6.5 km and Marmara Walls 9 km.

The land walls consist of three parts. Trench, outer wall, inner wall. The ditches have been agricultural areas today. Adjacent to the wall and 50 m. There are 96 bushes, many of which are broken and cracked. These are 10 meter high, mostly square planned and 25 meters high.

Dolmabahçe Palace:Dolmabahçe Palace is a palace located between Kabataş and Beşiktaş between the coastline extending from Karaköy to Sarıyer, opposite the Üsküdar from the Sea of ​​Marmara to the Bosphorus. Dolmabahçe was named after the sea. Borrowed from external states for construction. The area where Dolmabahçe Palace is located today was a big bay of the Bosphorus, where the ships of the Ottoman Captain-i Derya were anchored until four centuries ago. Dolmabahçe palace still preserves its old beauty. This bay, where traditional maritime ceremonies were held, became a marsh in time. The bay, which was started to be filled in the 17th century, was converted into a “hasbahçe” for the rest and entertainment of the sultans.

Estuary:The Golden Horn is a bay of Istanbul. The word meaning of the Golden Horn means the bay. According to Greek myth; The Megarans named their king the Golden Horn for Keroessa, the mother of White. In the Byzantine period, colonization started here. It was also the maritime center of the Byzantine Empire. The walls along the shore were built to protect the city from a sea fleet attack. To prevent the entry of unwanted ships at the entrance of the Golden Horn, there was a large chain across the city extending to the northeastern tip of the old Galata tower. This tower was severely damaged by the Latin crusaders in 1204 during the 4th Crusade. But the Genoese people built a new tower. This tower is the famous Galata Tower 1348 Christea Turris (Tower of Christ: Jesus’ ‘s Tower. The Ottoman Empire was a region where intensive Bektashi populations lived. Many of the Bektashi dervish lodges such as Karaağaç Tekke, Karyağdı Baba Tekke, Giresunlu Tekke were in this region.

Beylerbeyi Palace: Beylerbeyi palace was built between 1861-1865 by Sarkis Balyan by Sultan Abdülaziz in the place of an old wooden beach palace. Beylerbeyi Palace, which was built as a summer palace, was placed in a place to watch the strait. The palace dazzles with its beautiful embroidery. Although the architecture of the palace was highly influenced by the European architecture, the Ottoman decorations were quite comfortable. The interior of the palace is decorated with colorful tiles and furniture and valuables brought from Europe. Especially on the ceilings and walls of the palace, ship paintings attract attention.

Topkapi palace:Topkapı Palace is the oldest and largest palace in Istanbul, which has survived to the present day. It is the well-known acropolis hill in Istanbul, the location of the Golden Horn, the Bosphorus and the Marmara Sea. It is a complex with 700.000 m2 private land surrounded by 5 km long city walls at the most extreme point of the historical Istanbul triangle peninsula. Topkapi Palace, which is a very small city, has been used for more than 500 years. When the sultan moved to the newly built Dolmabahçe Palace, the palace was left without care for a long time. The palace was restored to its former glory through the restoration of the Republican Period. The palace used to be a museum at the moment presents the belongings of the Sultan. Among the most valuable pieces of the museum collection are the cardigans of Muhammad, female, footprint and sword. These objects were brought from Cairo during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim. Another valuable piece is the world-famous Kaşıkçı Elması. Topkapı Hançeri is another valuable item exhibited in the museum.

Yıldız Palace: The Palace of Stars for the first time Sultan III. It was built for Selim’s mother Mihrişah Sultan, especially the Ottoman Sultan II. It was used as the main palace of the Ottoman Empire at the time of Abdülhamit, and is now a palace in the district of Beşiktaş. Dolmabahçe Palace is not a single building, starting from the coast of the Marmara Sea to the northwest and the entire line up to the ridge to the back of a garden and palace settled in the woods, pavilions, management, protection, service structures and parks.

Ciragan Palace: Istanbul, Besiktas district, the historical palace located on Ciragan Street. The most beautiful places of the Golden Horn and Bosphorus were allocated to the sultans and important people for their palaces and pavilions. Many of them have disappeared over time. Çırağan, a large palace, was burned in 1910. An old wooden palace was built by Sultan Abdülaziz in 1871 and was built by the palace architect Serkis Balyan. In four years the building had 4 million underneath and the partition and ceiling were covered with wood and the walls were covered with marble. Exquisite examples of stone workmanship columns were richly furnished, spaces would be completed. The rooms were decorated with rare carpets, furnishings with gold gilding and pearl pencils. Çırağan, like other palaces of the Bosphorus, was the venue for many important meetings.

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